You will find as many health systems and models as there are countries. There are as many health systems and models as there are countries. This is because healthcare is an open public good and, thus, reflects the cultural and social values of the societies that design and adopt them. We should distinguish social and cultural values from financial and operational values.
Efficiency, for instance, is an economic-operational value, not just a social-cultural one. Equity (though often considered an economic criterion) is truly a normative social-cultural value whose pursuit often comes at a steep financial price and is non-efficient. Health systems can be classified according to which class of ideals they stress: the American (US) health system is geared to satisfy economic-operational requirements while European health systems place a premium on social-cultural ones.
- Net sales of $11.454 Billion (a rise of $681 million in comparison to 2013)
- Administration and day-to-day operating
- First Tennessee Interest Bearing Account
- Bankers are 10x busier than the common person
In this paper, I deal with three social-cultural constraints: solidarity, collateral (vs. You can find many other social-cultural beliefs that I do not cover in here: fairness, dignity, and choice one think of. Finally, I provide a discussion of the idea of “public good” in current literature. Social solidarity is both vertical and horizontal and both contemporaneous and inter-generational. Members of the same society ought to strive to share the burdens of the sick, the young, the poor, the weak, and the disenfranchised. Normally, this is done by moving financial resources among people groupings and by promoting fairness.
Such behavior cut also across decades, to the current era is keep answerable to future decades because of their well-being and the acceptable fulfillment of their needs. This “solidarity across time” reaches the foundation of most modern pension systems, for example. Some health systems are explicitly founded on social solidarity, others only so implicitly.
However, there are health systems which partly or eschew social solidarity as a defining theory and a determinant completely. Health systems of the first type are usually universal, uniform, and comprehensive. They rely on tax earnings or a sociable insurance plan or on a mixture of both. Health systems of the second type depend on private insurance, are not general, and are more diverse in the types of medical coverage offered (to this diversity include increased deal costs). Introducing means-testing (requesting the wealthy to pay additional or more user-fees, co-insurance, deductibles, or involvement) will not affect public solidarity. On the contrary, taxing the wealthy to cover the indigent is the very essence of the solitary state.
Similarly, introducing basic safety nets (such as voucher systems) is a solitary action. Whether this approach is ideal, from the economic perspective is beyond your scope of this paper. 1. Equity of financing (affordability): can the poor, the unemployed, the homeless, the old, the young, the weak, the chronically sick, and the disenfranchised spend the money for healthcare offered?